Pacific International Journal https://rclss.com/index.php/pij <p>Pacific International Journal "PIJ" (E-ISSN 2616-4825 &amp; P-ISSN 2663-8991) is an international, nonprofit, open access, online, and double-blind peer-reviewed journal that has been published since 2018 in Pakistan. This journal's main objective is to serve as an intellectual and scientific platform to develop and promote the multidisciplinary studies and research of the international scholars in the field described in more detail below. Pacific International Journal published the original research articles that identify, explain, and analyze real-world issues. It accepts full-length multidisciplinary research articles on a full range of topics. Pacific International journal is inviting submissions from authors according to the aims and scope of the journal. The PIJ is published in an open-access format – articles are published on the journal's website immediately after acceptance, giving the scientific community and the public unlimited and free access to the content.</p> <p><em><strong>By 2021 PIJ editorial team decided to publish only two issues in a year to improve research quality.</strong></em></p> <p>We also encourage scientists to publish their experimental and theoretical research relating to Business, Management, economics, education, arts, in as much detail as possible in order to promote scientific predictions and impact assessments of global change and development. Full experimental and methodical details must be provided so that the results can be reproduced.</p> <p>Anyone may submit an original article to be considered for publication in Pacific International Journal provided he or she owns the copyright to the work being submitted or is authorized by the copyright owner or owners to submit the article.</p> <h3>Benefits of publishing with PIJ</h3> <ul> <li><strong>Open access: </strong>Completely free for readers and authors. There are no fees charged for submission, subscription and article processing.</li> <li><strong>Rapid publication: </strong>PIJ is committed to getting the manuscripts peer-reviewed, and a first decision is provided to authors approximately 4-6 weeks after submission.</li> <li><strong>Recognition of reviewers: </strong>Reviewers who provide timely, thorough peer-review reports shall receive credits.</li> <li><strong>High visibility and Indexing: </strong>Indexed by: <ul> <li>Index Copernicus</li> <li>Google Scholar</li> <li>Directory of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI)</li> <li>International Scientific Indexing</li> <li>Cite Factor Academic Scientific Journals</li> <li>Scientific Indexing Service</li> <li>Academic resource Index Research Bib</li> <li>Scientific Journal Impact Factor</li> <li>China National Knowledge Infrastructure, 中国知网</li> <li>Under Review for multiple indexes and databases including EBSCO, ESCI, OAJI, and Scopus</li> </ul> </li> </ul> en-US support@rclss.com (Rahim Jafar) support@rclss.com (Rahim Jafar) Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.11 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Research Review on Accessibility and Equalization of Public Cultural Services in Chinese Rural Areas https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/165 <p>Geographers have conducted a lot of research on the accessibility of public service facilities and the equalization of public services based on the perspective of human-land relationship. The common feature is to analyze the accessibility and equalization of a specific type of public service facilities, to understand the current spatial pattern of service facilities, to evaluate the spatial balance of facility distribution, to identify the scarcity areas of facility supply, and to optimize the overall deployment pattern by selecting sites for new facilities with other measurement methods. In terms of research area, there are more large-scale spatial accessibility studies in favor of urban areas, but few studies specifically focus on accessibility in rural areas; there is also a lack of research on the spatial pattern of equalization based on the rural perspective. From the perspective of public service facility types, medical and education are the main research objects, while cultural service facilities are less involved. Therefore, research on the spatial accessibility and equalization of public service facilities should be extended more to cultural facilities, especially the spatial equity of public cultural service facilities in rural areas. The focus should be on how to visually express the layout of public cultural services as well as comprehensively consider factors such as the location of rural settlements, distance to facility sites, transportation networks, travel modes, and choice preferences. It is suggested to introduce the analysis of multiple quantitative indicators of accessibility into the planning and construction of public service facilities to further strengthen the realism and scientificity of public service facility planning. Reasonable site selection and optimization of layout patterns for public cultural facilities&nbsp;is also a key factor to improve the construction of basic public service system in rural areas.</p> juan zhang; Wang Bo Copyright (c) 2022 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/165 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Life Lessons: The Philosophy of Growth Contained in Jack London’s White Fang https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/175 <p>As one of the outstanding representative works of the famous American realist writer Jack London, the story tells the growth process of a little gray wolf named “White Fang”. This novel describes how a young wolf enters the civilized world of human beings from the wilderness, and tells the legendary experience of the main character, White Fang, who eventually turns from a wolf to a dog through trials and tribulations. This novel tells people that human society is different from the animal world, and they need not only to adapt to the environment but also to accept the ethical and moral constraints in order to obtain a broader space for growth if they want to survive in society. By reviewing the main content of <em>White Fang</em> and the author’s biography, this paper analyzes the background of the creation of <em>White Fang</em> and highlights the growth of White Fang and the meaning of life by analyzing the description of the survival experience of White Fang in the work to show the tenacity of its vitality, with a view to reflecting on its inspiration and reflection on real life through the theme of the law of life and the principles of life in the novel. Furthermore, it aims at giving a positive interpretation of the meaning of life. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Guang Yang Copyright (c) 2022 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/175 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 An Analysis on the Personalities of the main Characters in Gone with the Wind https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/181 <p><em>Gone with the Wind</em>&nbsp;is a panoramic social novel with the American Civil War as the historical background and the social life in the south as the living environment. The setting is dwelt on two families--the Tara Plantation of the O'Hara's family and the Wilkes plantation of Twelve Oaks.The story vivid presents the lives of the two families, their slaves' and friends-various characters in the great social changes.By showing the changes of different characters in the chaotic world during and after the civil war. It reveals different characters with different personalities are bound to move forward as the main characters.By analyzing the numerous and complicated social activities,we can understand their different destinies better due to their personalities combined with their identities.</p> Yi Han Copyright (c) 2022 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/181 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Ideological and Political Education in English Reading Classes in Junior Middle School: An Analysis with An Exemplary Case https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/182 <p><strong>Abstract</strong>:Traditional contemporary education is more focused on cultivating students' test-taking ability. There is an incorrect tendency to value grades over soft culture, which does not meet the requirements of cultivating students in the new era. This study mainly uses the questionnaire survey method and documentary analysis method to study the possibility and results of applying Ideological and Political Education in secondary school English classrooms. The following research questions were mainly answered: (1) How can teachers integrate the Ideological and Political pedagogy into English reading classroom teaching? (2) What kind of impact can ideological and political education have on students in reading classes? The study concluded the survey , clarified the necessity and research value of the thinking and government teaching method at present, and analyzed and summarized the revelations and lessons: ideological and political education should be and can be carried out from three aspects: the individual and the state, the individual and society, and the individual and the self. It should be carried out with the state and society as the solid force, the teaching goal of teaching and&nbsp;education as the core, the teacher as the active initiator, and the reading classroom&nbsp;should be carried out as an important carrier. The student's enthusiasm for learning&nbsp;was significantly increased after combining the Ideological and Political Science&nbsp;teaching methods, and their recognition of Civic and Chinese mainstream values was increased. We should vigorously promote Ideological and Political Science education and skillfully integrate it into all aspects of teaching.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 异环 徐 Copyright (c) 2022 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/182 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Airy function solution of two classes of nonlinear evolution equations https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/172 <p>In this paper , we study the problem of constructing the new solutions of the mKdV equation and STO equation. By using the Airy equation and its solution, the new solutions of mKdV equation and STO equation are constructed. First of all, through function transformation, mKdV equation and STO equation can be turned into Airy function to solve. Then, construct the solution of mKdV equation and STO equation by using the solution of Airy function. Finally, analyze the properties of these solutions with the help of symbolic computation system: Mathematica.</p> Junjie Fan Copyright (c) 2022 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/172 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Case of Reading Teaching on Task-Based Teaching Model in Middle Schools https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/184 <p>In April 2022, the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China officially announced the English Curriculum Standards for Compulsory Education (2022 Edition). Since the release&nbsp;of the English Curriculum Standards for Compulsory Education (2011 Edition), the reform of the English curriculum for compulsory education has made remarkable achievements;&nbsp;at the same time,&nbsp;however, there are also some problems that need to be solved urgently. The new curriculum standards should change the teaching of vocabulary and grammar knowledge as the main content, select learning contents around the comprehensive performance of core literacy, design teaching units as a whole, and plan the blueprint of unit education. According to the students' comprehensive performance and the objectives of the school section, the content should be closely related to the real life, especially the social life and learning life that students are familiar with and meet the characteristics of their physical and mental development. The content selected should reflect the characteristics of the times and social progress, focus on the themes of people and nature. Elements&nbsp;on&nbsp;theme, discourse, language knowledge, cultural knowledge, language skills and learning strategies&nbsp;should be considered when selecting the the teaching content. &nbsp;Ultimately, students are expected to use the knowledge&nbsp;and&nbsp;skills to solve tasks and problems&nbsp;in practice. In terms of middle school English teaching, the author holds that Task-Based&nbsp;Teaching Mode&nbsp;will help teachers to achieve the above goals. Task-Based&nbsp;teaching emphasizes learning by doing, which allows students to interact with teachers, and it also creates a favorable environment for students to learn and internalize. The&nbsp;middle&nbsp;school English teaching goal is to help&nbsp;the students to obtain the basic English knowledge and the ability of using English to communicate through listening,speaking,reading and writing training.&nbsp;As a helpful&nbsp;teaching approach,&nbsp;the Task-Based&nbsp;Teaching Model can be widely used.&nbsp;Based on the English classroom of middle school, this thesis discusses the relationship between Task-Based&nbsp;Teaching Model and the modern English class through analyzing the&nbsp;reading&nbsp;in&nbsp;middle school English class.&nbsp;The paper&nbsp;draws a conclusion that Task-Based&nbsp;Teaching Model is effective in middle school English classroom&nbsp;and it can improve students comprehensive ability to a all-round development&nbsp;level. &nbsp;</p> Yongmei Liu Copyright (c) 2022 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/184 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Teachers’ Changing Roles in Developing Learner Autonomy https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/159 <p><strong>Abstract </strong>The idea of learner autonomy is not new in China, while to develop it in&nbsp;classrooms&nbsp;is always a tough work. For years much attention was drawn to how to fully develop learners’ capacity to be autonomous in every aspect in learning and the teacher’s role in the discussion was considered to be less important. This paper takes a different stand that the teacher plays at least three more important roles: as the example, as the friend and as the adversary to the students. These roles teacher plays help students develop learning autonomy by fostering their motivation, discussing with them the learning strategies and monitoring their learning process. Future empirical studies can be conducted to further examine the effect in practice.</p> Shuning Ma Copyright (c) 2022 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/159 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 An Analysis on Irony in Pride and Prejudice from the Perspective of Speech Act Theory https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/161 <p><em>Pride and Prejudice, </em>as Jane Austen’s most representative novel, has high literary value and research significance.</p> <p>The most notable feature of this novel is irony, which is employed to depict character images and highlight psychological activities and relationships among the characters. Irony is closely related to speech act theory, this article in the framework of speech act theory analyzes irony form the macro and micro perspective, thus proves the feasibility of application of theory of general linguistics to the analysis of fiction texts.</p> YAJIE SUN Copyright (c) 2022 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/161 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Development of College English Teachers in the New Era https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/176 <p>The rapid development of science and technology and the global integration have put forward new requirements for talents.&nbsp;In the new era, colleges and universities are facing unprecedented challenges&nbsp;in talents&nbsp;cultivation.&nbsp;As educators&nbsp;of&nbsp;the&nbsp;talents, college teachers must take the initiative to meet the challenges and&nbsp;improve the quality of talent training&nbsp;to contribute for the &nbsp;development of the country and society.&nbsp;College English teachers, as the guiders in language&nbsp;and&nbsp;cultural&nbsp;learning, thinking development and the formation of outlook on life, world outlook and values, must have enough ability to fulfill their responsibilities.&nbsp;This requires every college English teacher to keep pace with the times&nbsp;and constantly improve themselves from various aspects, and better meet the new demand for talents in the new era.</p> Gary Zhang Copyright (c) 2022 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/176 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on Developing Critical Thinking of College Students through CRD in Comprehensive English Class https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/178 <p>To cultivate independent innovation capability has become the core goal of the Higher Education in China and also an important indicator to display national strength.<strong>&nbsp;</strong>The critical thinking ability is the premise and foundation of innovative capability. Therefore, there is a pressing need to to develop critical minds of the college students in daily teaching. This research aims to explore the effective ways of developing critical thinking&nbsp;(CT) competence through collaborative reasoning discussions&nbsp;(CRD). It conducts a detailed analysis of how to integrate the objective of developing CT skills in collaborative reasoning discussions (CRD), so as to provide the reference for the practice of critical thinking research and come up with the proper teaching mode for critical thinking in China.</p> Lei Bai Copyright (c) 2022 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/178 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 An Exploration of the Integration Path of Music Education and Examination in Primary and Secondary Schools in China https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/166 <p>&nbsp;Aesthetic education makes full use of all aesthetic phenomena that exist in human society. In particular, the perception and understanding of beauty in work and the development of the human ability to make beauty part of the process and outcome of work. Music education is an important part of aesthetic education. By using music as an educational tool, music education develops special abilities and talents in specific types of art. In China, the integration between music examinations and aesthetic education&nbsp;brings a challenge to schools and public.How will schools put aesthetic subjects in the exam and what should be included in the exam? The paper introduced the background of the aesthetic education in China and discussed the roles of music in aesthetic education. To integrate the music education with the exams, the papers explores the paths of ability-originate exams, practical skills-originate exams and mind-developing originate exams, hoping to enlighten the public on the music course development in China.</p> juan zhang Copyright (c) 2022 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/166 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 On the Global Community of Shared Future for Mankind under the COVID-19 Epidemic https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/142 <p><em>The 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China clearly put forward that "we should advocate Community of Shared Future for Mankind consciousness, take into account the reasonable concerns of other countries when pursuing our own interests, promote the common development of all countries while pursuing our own development, establish a more equal and balanced new global development partnership, help each other in the same boat, share the responsibilities and responsibilities, and promote the common interests of mankind". The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China also mentioned that "we call on people of all countries to make concerted efforts to build Community of Shared Future for Mankind and a world of lasting peace, universal security, common prosperity, openness, tolerance, cleanliness and beauty." Over the years, China has been working hard to promote the construction of Community of Shared Future for Mankind. In 2020, the COVID-19 epidemic ravaged the world. This epidemic is a mirror, which shows us the necessity of building Community of Shared Future for Mankind, the efforts made by China, and the difficulty of building Community of Shared Future for Mankind.</em></p> WENDIAN LIU Copyright (c) 2022 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/142 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A A case study report on practical issues and recommendations for the Project Hope of China Youth Development Foundation https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/162 <p>This report used&nbsp;SWOT analysis to discuss the strengths, weaknesses,&nbsp;opportunities and threat of Project&nbsp;Hope&nbsp;supported by China Teenager Development Foundation. Project&nbsp;Hope&nbsp;aims to include all children into national education and provide children in poor areas with equal educational rights and opportunities. First, Project&nbsp;Hope&nbsp;was first founded in China has become the largest education charity group. The large scale and huge number of benefited students of Project&nbsp;Hope&nbsp;gives it high social influence and reputation. What is more, multiple channels of fund-raising build solid partnerships between&nbsp;Project&nbsp;Hope&nbsp;and powerful enterprises and groups of China. To further its development in a global stage, Project&nbsp;Hope&nbsp;also grasped&nbsp;opportunities to learn from and exchange with similar foreign charity groups, which not only advertise its global influence, but also raise more funds for Hope Primary Schools. &nbsp;The head office of the CYDF in Beijing is a national public foundation that is registered with the Chinese Ministry of Civil Affairs. The foundation was established in 1989. The mission of the CYDF is “helping young people build&nbsp;capacity and to improving the environment for their growth by providing aid services, giving a voice to the interests of young people and by carrying out social advocacy” .Fair education is an extension of a fair society in the educational field, it not only reflects the values and basic objectives of educational modernization, but it is also an important basis for social equity. Fair education is one of the objectives that nations try to realize. In this article, SWOT is an analytic method for determining a company’s competitive strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in the market so that the company’s strategy and external environment can be organically combined with its internal resources.</p> XIAOCHEN REN Copyright (c) 2022 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/162 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Historical Review of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappan Civilization in Pakistan https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/185 <p>The ancient Indus civilization, also known as Harappan civilization&nbsp;is famous for the ruins of two ancient cities, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, which remained unknown for thousands of years due to little written record in human history. It was not in&nbsp;the&nbsp;1820s, when archaeologists excavated a large number of stone tools, bronzes, seals and agricultural remains in the two cities,&nbsp;that the world began to learn about the secret of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappan civilization. The total number of Harappan civilization sites may be as many as 2,000, but most of them are still buried underground, awaiting further excavation. Nearly 200 sites have been excavated or are being excavated, ranging from ancient couple tombs to ancient city ruins. Mohenjo-Daro, which means "hill of death" in the local language, is &nbsp;an ancient city of the civilization of the Indus valley located on the right bank of the Indus River, northern Sindh province, southern Pakistan. It was built around 2500 BC and was abandoned in 1900 BC. In the sites of both cities, archaeologists discovered the advanced scientific and technological achievements of the ancient Indus civilization, but they were puzzled by&nbsp;the loss of the civilization. This paper starts with the introduction&nbsp;of the ancient Indus civilization before moves to the discovery process of Harappa and Mohendaro. Literature review on the studies on Harappa and Mohenjodaro is presented with a brief analysis in the end. After giving an&nbsp;outline of the civilization, the paper tries to solve the mystery of the loss of civilization, but so far no agreed understanding of the cause has been reached. By reviewing the civilizations of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro, the paper presents to readers the ancient civilizations of Pakistan and enhance their understanding of human science, technology and culture in ancient times.</p> Jun Copyright (c) 2022 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/185 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Crossing, Leaping and Transcendence:Analysis of Pakistani Film and TV dramas Released in China https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/188 <p><strong>Abstr</strong><strong>a</strong><strong>ct</strong><strong>:</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong>The friendship between Pakistan-China&nbsp;is&nbsp;deeply rooted in the hearts of people of the two countries. The exchanges and mutual learning&nbsp;through the&nbsp;film,&nbsp;television&nbsp;and drama&nbsp;playeda &nbsp;significance role to&nbsp;strengthen&nbsp;the bond among the people of both countries.&nbsp;Since the establishment of diplomatic ties between the two countries, the exchange of film and television products&nbsp;have&nbsp;gone through ups and downs, and the dissemination of Pakistani film and television products&nbsp;have&nbsp;also experienced twists and turns.&nbsp;In 2020, the Pakistani film "&nbsp;Parwaaz Hai Junoon&nbsp;" was released in China, which aroused some response&nbsp;and gave impetus to cultural exchanges. It also open doors for Pakistani films and drama in China.&nbsp;Despite the improvement of the quantity and quality of Pakistani film and television products, these could not&nbsp;spread in China&nbsp;mainland&nbsp;at greater extent, with the advent of the era of "mixed war", the conflict of values has become a problem that should be addressed&nbsp;in film and television communication.&nbsp;The bilateral political trust, ideological security demand at&nbsp;present, ask for promotion of cross-cultural communication&nbsp;through&nbsp;film and television products. There should be mechanisms, which can help to&nbsp;overcome obstacles actively, expand new path, clever use of all kinds of social and short video platform. &nbsp;Pakistani&nbsp;film in China should also ensure communication quality at all&nbsp;level and at the same time boost the&nbsp;cooperation between&nbsp;two countries field&nbsp;of film and television products.&nbsp;The in-depth exchanges and high-level mutual learning in the fields of&nbsp;film and television between China and Pakistan are worth looking forward to.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Jun Copyright (c) 2022 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/188 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Higher Education Exchanges between China and Pakistan under Belt and Road Initiative https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/140 <p>China and Pakistan enjoy an all-weather relationship since the two countries established diplomatic relations in 1951.&nbsp;Over the past seven decades, the two sides developed iron-brother relationship which is recognize as the model of international relations. Entering into 21<sup>st </sup>&nbsp;century, &nbsp;the two countries starts to explore a solid educational exchanges with each other, and a&nbsp;growing number of universities and colleges in China and Pakistan started educational cooperation programs, with more and more Pakistani students coming to China to learn Chinese culture, language and majors. Meanwhile, many Chinese companies in Pakistan are in desperate need of talents who are familiar with Pakistan local situation and capable of speaking English, Chinese and the local language. The growing exchanges between the two countries in higher education promoted friendly relations between the two countries, and there is an increasing need for talents under the background of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. This paper will examine the educational exchanges between the two countries from four aspects: academic exchanges, China-Pakistan language programs, overseas students programs and educational platforms. The paper summaries&nbsp;the direction for future educational cooperation between the two countries.</p> Jun Copyright (c) 2022 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/140 Mon, 06 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Pakistan-China Journey of Brotherhood https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/177 <p>Pak-China relationship cannot be understood by applying traditional theories and concepts of international relation. Relationship has been developed on the basis of mutual respect, inclusiveness and principles of brotherhood. Brotherhood is a unique model of international relationship, which have no precedent. The relationship started as business as usual but meeting of Prime Minister Muhammad Ali Bogra and Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai in 1955, changed the whole dynamics.</p> <p>Since then, relationship got stronger with every passing moment and successive generations carried the message of brotherhood. The history is full of examples, where both countries stood shoulder to shoulder to face all challenges. China never compromised on core interests of Pakistan and Pakistan never compromised on the core interests of China. Along the time, both countries explored all options to strengthen the relationship and established trusted and deep linkages in all fields including defence, trade, culture, science and technology. &nbsp;</p> Jun; Ramay Copyright (c) 2022 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://rclss.com/index.php/pij/article/view/177 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000